From Dr. Kevin Maggs, the Active Release Therapist for the Rev3 Triathlon Series, and therapist for Olympic medalist Meb Keflezighi:

            When a runner suffers a running injury, the most natural question that follows is “why did this happen?” The runner wants the answer because they want to learn from it and prevent it from happening again.
            Many therapists/clinicians try to answer the “why did it happen” question with answers like – “you need an orthotic”, “your arches are too high”, “your arches are too low” or “one leg is shorter than the other.” The therapist is well intentioned and simply repeating what they were educated in back in school.
            Unfortunately, they are giving outdated, false and sometimes dangerous information. With better study designs to look at who is getting injured as well as advancements in imaging (3D motion capture, kinematic MRI and flouroscopy) researchers in the past 10-15 years have been able to see exactly HOW the body moves – much of it is in sharp contrast to how we USED TO THINK the body moved. This has made some of the information that used to be taught in schools debatable at best.
            The main difference between the old beliefs and the new research is that looking at and measuring a runner in a non-moving scenario (i.e. standing still, laying on the table etc.), is very unreliable and unpredictable at best,, while examining the WAY they run can be much more revealing.
            Factors like arch height, leg length, Q angle, tibial torsion, forefoot and rearfoot varus and valgus, subtalar varus and valgus, genu recurvatum and other measurements with fancy names have been measured and don’t correlate to increased incidence of injuries. This has been found in many studies.
            Pete Larson did a review of three different studies that show static arch height (meaning when we’re not moving) has very little correlation to the amount of arch height when someone walks or runs.
            Another example: A 2004 study looked at 87 recreational runners over a 6 month period. They found that 79% of them ended up with some amount of injury, but “Measurements of static lower limb biomechanical alignment were not found to be related to lower limb injury in recreational athletes. The findings of this study are in agreement with a number of retrospective and prospective cohort studies.[5]
          On the other hand, movement analysis of runners is very good at correlating injury to running style and kinematics. This is why a gait analysis (performed by someone who is educated in anatomy and biomechanics) is so important. It is irresponsible for any healthcare provider to not provide or at least refer a patient for a gait analysis if they keep treating the spot that hurts only to have the pain/injury return when a patient returns to running.
            That is not to say that gait analysis is the “be all, end all”, but it’s a heck of a lot better than staring at a runner who is standing still and proclaiming that you have figured out why they get injured when they run.

1. Marti B, Vader J, Minder C, Abelin T. On the epidemiology of running injuries. The 1984 Bern, Grand-Prix study. Am J Sports Med 1988;16(3):285-94.
2. Taunton J, Ryan M, Clement D, McKenzie D, Lloyd-Smith D, Zumbo B. A prospective study of running injuries: the Vancouver Sun Run “In Training” clinics. Br J Sports Med 2003;37:239-244.
3. Macera C, Pate R, Powell K, Jackson K, Kendrick J, Craven C. Predicting lower-extremity injuries among habitual runners. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2565-68.
4. Walter S, Hart L, McIntosh J, Sutton J. The Ontario cohort study of running-related injuries. . Arch Intern Med 1989;149(11):2561-4.
5. Lun V., Meeuwisse W.H., Stergiou P, and Stefanyshyn D. (2004). Relation between running injury and static lower limb alignment in recreational runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(5), 576-580.

Dr. Kevin Maggs
Active Spine and Sport

About horowitzrun

Jeff is a certified running, cycling, and triathlon coach, and is the author of "My First 100 Marathons" (Skyhorse Press 2008) and "Smart Marathon Training" (Velo Press 2011). An obviously addicted runner, Jeff has run at least one marathon in every state and on 6 continents, including marathons in South Africa, China, Bangkok, and Antarctica. Jeff is available for group, one-on-one, and virtual coaching. Options include: 1. Basic Training Plan. This includes a customized training schedule geared towards a goal race, with a detailed running schedule that would include all distances and target times for each workout, including speedwork, tempo, and endurance sessions. 2. Complete Fitness and Race Plan. This includes the plan listed above, plus the non-running workouts and drills that runners need for better overall fitness and performance. You would get strength & core workouts, as well as run-specific training drills and stretches. 3. Virtual Coaching. This includes all of the above, implemented on a week-by-week basis. We review each week's progress at week's end so that adjustments can be made. The program is tailored to suit you right up to race day. It involves more contact, on a weekly or even daily basis. 4. Full Coaching for athletes in the Washington DC area. All of the above, plus a weekly workout together including speedwork, drills, and strength training. 5. Individual track sessions. One-on-one track-based workouts. Contact Jeff for pricing.
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